Industry Companies Life

Functional areas

Finance Fundamentally, finance is a social science discipline.[35] The discipline borders behavioral economics, sociology,[36] economics, accounting and management. It concerns technical issues such as the mix of debt and equity, dividend policy, the evaluation of alternative investment projects, options, futures, swaps, and other derivatives, portfolio diversification and many others. It is often mistaken[who?] to be a discipline free from ethical burdens.[35] The 2008 financial crisis caused critics to challenge the ethics of the executives in charge of U.S. and European financial institutions and financial regulatory bodies.[37] Finance ethics is overlooked for another reason—issues in finance are often addressed as matters of law rather than ethics.[38] [edit]Finance paradigm Aristotle said, "the end and purpose of the polis is the good life".[39] Adam Smith characterized the good life in terms of material goods and intellectual and moral excellences of character.[40] Smith in his The Wealth of Nations commented, "All for ourselves, and nothing for other people, seems, in every age of the world, to have been the vile maxim of the masters of mankind."[41] Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Adam Smith However, a section of economists influenced by the ideology of neoliberalism, interpreted the objective of economics to be maximization of economic growth through accelerated consumption and production of goods and services.[42] Neoliberal ideology promoted finance from its position as a component of economics to its core.[citation needed] Proponents of the ideology hold that unrestricted financial flows, if redeemed from the shackles of "financial repressions",[43] best help impoverished nations to grow.[citation needed] The theory holds that open financial systems accelerate economic growth by encouraging foreign capital in?ows, thereby enabling higher levels of savings, investment, employment, productivity and "welfare",[44][45][46][47] along with containing corruption.[48] Neoliberals recommended that governments open their financial systems to the global market with minimal regulation over capital flows.[49][50][51][52][53] The recommendations however, met with criticisms from various schools of ethical philosophy. Some pragmatic ethicists, found these claims to unfalsifiable and a priori, although neither of these makes the recommendations false or unethical per se.[54][55][56] Raising economic growth to the highest value necessarily means that welfare is subordinate, although advocates dispute this saying that economic growth provides more welfare than known alternatives.[57] Since history shows that neither regulated nor unregulated firms always behave ethically, neither regime offers an ethical panacea.[58][59][60] Neoliberal recommendations to developing countries to unconditionally open up their economies to transnational finance corporations was fiercely contested by some ethicists.[61][62][63][64][65] The claim that deregulation and the opening up of economies would reduce corruption was also contested.[66][67][68] Dobson observes, "a rational agent is simply one who pursues personal material advantage ad infinitum. In essence, to be rational in finance is to be individualistic, materialistic, and competitive. Business is a game played by individuals, as with all games the object is to win, and winning is measured in terms solely of material wealth. Within the discipline this rationality concept is never questioned, and has indeed become the theory-of-the-firm's sine qua non".[69][70] Financial ethics is in this view a mathematical function of shareholder wealth. Such simplifying assumptions were once necessary for the construction of mathematically robust models.[71] However signalling theory and agency theory extended the paradigm to greater realism.[72] [edit]Other issues Fairness in trading practices, trading conditions, financial contracting, sales practices, consultancy services, tax payments, internal audit, external audit and executive compensation also fall under the umbrella of finance and accounting.[38][73] Particular corporate ethical/legal abuses include: creative accounting, earnings management, misleading financial analysis insider trading, securities fraud, bribery/kickbacks and facilitation payments. Outside of corporations, bucket shops and forex scams are criminal manipulations of financial markets. Cases include accounting scandals, Enron, WorldCom and Satyam.[citation needed] [edit]Human resource management Human resource management occupies the sphere of activity of recruitment selection, orientation, performance appraisal, training and development, industrial relations and health and safety issues.[74] Business Ethicists differ in their orientation towards labour ethics. Some assess human resource policies according to whether they support an egalitarian workplace and the dignity of labor.[75][76][77] Issues including employment itself, privacy, compensation in accord with comparable worth, collective bargaining (and/or its opposite) can be seen either as inalienable rights[78][79] or as negotiable.[80][81][82][83][84] Discrimination by age (preferring the young or the old), gender/sexual harassment, race, religion, disability, weight and attractiveness. A common approach to remedying discrimination is affirmative action. Potential employees have ethical obligations to employers, involving intellectual property protection and whistle-blowing. Employers must consider workplace safety, which may involve modifying the workplace, or providing appropriate training or hazard disclosure. Larger economic issues such as immigration, trade policy, globalization and trade unionism affect workplaces and have an ethical dimension, but are often beyond the purview of individual companies.[78][85][86] [edit]Trade unions Unions for example, may push employers to establish due process for workers, but may also cost jobs by demanding unsustainable compensation and work rules.[87][88][89][90][91][92][93][94][95][96] Unionized workplaces may confront union busting and strike breaking and face the ethical implications of work rules that advantage some workers over others

Industry Companies Life